Alaska Statutes

Title 28: Motor Vehicles

Chapter 35. Offenses And Accidents

Sec. 28.35.030. Operating a vehicle, aircraft or watercraft while under the influence of an alcoholic beverage, inhalant, or controlled substance.

       (a) A person commits the crime of driving while under the influence of an alcoholic beverage, inhalant, or controlled substance if the person operates or drives a motor vehicle or operates an aircraft or a watercraft

       (1) while under the influence of an alcoholic beverage, intoxicating liquor, inhalant, or any controlled substance, singly or in combination; or

       (2) and if, as determined by a chemical test taken within four hours after the alleged operating or driving, there is 0.08 percent or more by weight of alcohol in the person's blood or 80 milligrams or more of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood, or if there is 0.08 grams or more of alcohol per 210 liters of the person's breath.

       (b) Except as provided under (n) of this section, driving while under the influence of an alcoholic beverage, inhalant, or controlled substance is a class A misdemeanor. Except as provided under (p) of this section, upon conviction,

       (1) the court shall impose a minimum sentence of imprisonment of

       (A) not less than 72 consecutive hours and a fine of not less than $1,500 if the person has not been previously convicted;

       (B) not less than 20 days and a fine of not less than $3,000 if the person has been previously convicted once;

       (C) not less than 60 days and a fine of not less than $4,000 if the person has been previously convicted twice and is not subject to punishment under (n) of this section;

       (D) not less than 120 days and a fine of not less than $5,000 if the person has been previously convicted three times and is not subject to punishment under (n) of this section;

       (E) not less than 240 days and a fine of not less than $6,000 if the person has been previously convicted four times and is not subject to punishment under (n) of this section;

       (F) not less than 360 days and a fine of not less than $7,000 if the person has been previously convicted more than four times and is not subject to punishment under (n) of this section;

       (2) the court may not

       (A) suspend execution of sentence or grant probation except on condition that the person

       (i) serve the minimum imprisonment under (1) of this subsection; and

       (ii) pay the minimum fine required under (1) of this subsection;

       (B) suspend imposition of sentence;

       (3) the court shall revoke the person's driver's license, privilege to drive, or privilege to obtain a license under AS 28.15.181 , and may order that the motor vehicle, aircraft, or watercraft that was used in commission of the offense be forfeited under AS 28.35.036 ; and

       (4) the court may order that the person, while incarcerated or as a condition of probation or parole, take a drug or combination of drugs intended to prevent the consumption of an alcoholic beverage; a condition of probation or parole imposed under this paragraph is in addition to any other condition authorized under another provision of law.

       (c) [Repealed, Sec. 34 ch 119 SLA 1990].

       (d) Except as prohibited by federal law or regulation, every provider of treatment programs to which persons are ordered under this section shall supply the judge, prosecutor, defendant, and an agency involved in the defendant's treatment with information and reports concerning the defendant's past and present assessment, treatment, and progress. Information compiled under this subsection is confidential and may only be used in connection with court proceedings involving the defendant's treatment, including use by a court in sentencing a person convicted under this section, or by an officer of the court in preparing a presentence report for the use of the court in sentencing a person convicted under this section.

       (e) A person who is sentenced to imprisonment for 72 consecutive hours upon a first conviction under this section and who is not released from imprisonment after 72 hours may not bring an action against the state or a municipality or its agents, officers, or employees for damages resulting from the additional period of confinement if

       (1) the employee or employees who released the person exercised due care and, in releasing the person, followed the standard release procedures of the prison facility; and

       (2) the additional period of confinement did not exceed 12 hours.

       (f) [Repealed, Sec. 34 ch 119 SLA 1990].

       (g) Notwithstanding (b) of this section, if the court imposes probation under AS 12.55.102 the court may reduce the fine required to be imposed under (b) of this section by the cost of the ignition interlock device.

       (h) The court shall order a person convicted under this section to satisfy the screening, evaluation, referral, and program requirements of an alcohol safety action program if such a program is available in the community where the person resides, or a private or public treatment facility approved by the Department of Health and Social Services, under AS 47.37 to make referrals for rehabilitative treatment or to provide rehabilitative treatment. If a person is convicted under (n) of this section, the court shall order the person to be evaluated as required by this subsection before the court imposes sentence for the offense.

       (i) A program of inpatient treatment may be required by the authorized agency under (h) of this section only if authorized in the judgment, and may not exceed the maximum term of inpatient treatment specified in the judgment. A person who has been referred for inpatient treatment under this subsection may make a written request to the sentencing court asking the court to review the referral. The request for review shall be made within seven days of the agency's referral, and shall specifically set out the grounds upon which the request for review is based. The court may order a hearing on the request for review.

       (j) If a person fails to satisfy the requirements of an authorized agency under (i) of this section, the court

       (1) may impose any portion of a suspended sentence; however, if the person was convicted under (n) of this section, the court shall impose a part or all of the remaining portion of any suspended sentence;

       (2) may punish the failure as contempt of the authority of the court under AS 09.50.010 or as a violation of a condition of probation; and

       (3) shall order the revocation or suspension of the person's driver's license, privilege to drive, and privilege to obtain a driver's license until the requirements are satisfied.

       (k) Imprisonment required under (b)(1)(A) of this section shall be served at a community residential center or, if a community residential center is not available, at another appropriate place determined by the commissioner of corrections. Imprisonment required under (b)(1)(B) - (F) of this section may be served at a community residential center or at a private residence if approved by the commissioner of corrections. Imprisonment served at a private residence must include electronic monitoring. The cost of imprisonment resulting from the sentence imposed under (b)(1) of this section shall be paid to the state by the person being sentenced provided, however, that the cost of imprisonment required to be paid under this subsection may not exceed $2,000. Upon the person's conviction, the court shall include the costs of imprisonment as a part of the judgment of conviction. Except for reimbursement from a permanent fund dividend as provided in this subsection, payment of the cost of imprisonment is not required if the court determines the person is indigent. For costs of imprisonment that are not paid by the person as required by this subsection, the state shall seek reimbursement from the person's permanent fund dividend as provided under AS 43.23.065 . While at the community residential center or other appropriate place, a person sentenced under (b)(1)(A) of this section shall perform at least 24 hours of community service work. A person sentenced under (b)(1)(B) of this section shall perform at least 160 hours of community service work, as required by the director of the community residential center or other appropriate place, or as required by the commissioner of corrections if the sentence is being served at a private residence. In this subsection, "appropriate place" means a facility with 24-hour on-site staff supervision that is specifically adapted to provide a residence, and includes a correctional center, residential treatment facility, hospital, halfway house, group home, work farm, work camp, or other place that provides varying levels of restriction.

       (l) The commissioner of corrections shall determine and prescribe by regulation a uniform average cost of imprisonment for the purpose of determining the cost of imprisonment required to be paid under (k) of this section by a convicted person.

       (m) If the act for which a person is convicted under this section contributes to a motor vehicle accident, the court shall order the person to pay the reasonable cost of any emergency services that responded to the accident, if the convicted person or the convicted person's insurer has not already paid the cost of the emergency services. If payment is required under this subsection, the payment shall be made directly to the emergency service and shall be equal to the actual cost of responding to the accident or the previous year's annual average cost of responding to a motor vehicle accident, whichever is higher. In this subsection, "emergency service" includes a peace officer, fire department, ambulance service, emergency medical technician or emergency trauma technician.

       (n) A person is guilty of a class C felony if the person is convicted under (a) of this section and either has been previously convicted two or more times since January 1, 1996, and within the 10 years preceding the date of the present offense, or punishment under this subsection or under AS 28.35.032 (p) was previously imposed within the last 10 years. For purposes of determining minimum sentences based on previous convictions, the provisions of (t)(4) of this section apply. Upon conviction, the court

       (1) shall impose a fine of not less than $10,000 and a minimum sentence of imprisonment of not less than

       (A) 120 days if the person has been previously convicted twice;

       (B) 240 days if the person has been previously convicted three times;

       (C) 360 days if the person has been previously convicted four or more times;

       (2) may not

       (A) suspend execution of sentence or grant probation except on condition that the person

       (i) serve the minimum imprisonment under (1) of this subsection; and

       (ii) pay the minimum fine required under (1) of this subsection; or

       (B) suspend imposition of sentence;

       (3) shall permanently revoke the person's driver's license, privilege to drive, or privilege to obtain a license subject to restoration of the license under (o) of this section;

       (4) may order that the person, while incarcerated or as a condition of probation or parole, take a drug or combination of drugs, intended to prevent the consumption of an alcoholic beverage; a condition of probation or parole imposed under this paragraph is in addition to any other condition authorized under another provision of law;

       (5) shall order forfeiture under AS 28.35.036 of the vehicle, watercraft, or aircraft used in the commission of the offense, subject to remission under AS 28.35.037 ; and

       (6) shall order the department to revoke the registration for any vehicle registered by the department in the name of the person convicted under this subsection; if a person convicted under this subsection is a registered co-owner of a vehicle or is registered as a co-owner under a business name, the department shall reissue the vehicle registration and omit the name of the person convicted under this subsection.

       (o) Upon request, the department shall review a driver's license revocation imposed under (n)(3) of this section and may restore the driver's license if

       (1) the license has been revoked for a period of at least 10 years;

       (2) the person has not been convicted of a criminal offense since the license was revoked; and

       (3) the person provides proof of financial responsibility.

       (p) If the court determines that the person has successfully completed a court-ordered treatment program, the court may suspend up to 75 percent of the mandatory minimum sentence required under (b)(1) or (n)(1) of this section and up to 75 percent of the minimum fines required under (b)(1) or (n)(1) of this section. This subsection does not apply to a person who has already participated in a court-ordered treatment program two or more times. In this subsection, "court-ordered treatment" means a treatment program for a person who consumes alcohol or drugs and that

       (1) requires participation for at least 18 consecutive months;

       (2) includes planning and treatment for alcohol or drug addiction;

       (3) includes emphasis on personal responsibility;

       (4) provides in-court recognition of progress and sanctions for relapses;

       (5) requires payment of restitution to victims and completion of community work service;

       (6) includes physician approved treatment of physical addiction and treatment of the psychological causes of addiction;

       (7) includes a monitoring program and physical placement or housing; and

       (8) requires adherence to conditions of probation.

       (q) For purposes of this section, the director of the division within the department responsible for administration of this section or a person designated by the director may request and receive criminal justice information available under AS 12.62. In this subsection, "criminal justice information" has the meaning given in AS 12.62.900 .

       (r) If a person is convicted under (a) of this section and it is determined by the trier of fact that, as determined by a chemical test taken within four hours after the offense was committed,

       (1) there was at least 0.16 percent by weight of alcohol in the person's blood but less than 0.24 percent by weight of alcohol in the person's blood or at least 160 milligrams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood, but less than 240 milligrams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood, or when there was at least 0.16 grams of alcohol per 210 liters of the person's breath, but less than 0.24 grams of alcohol per 210 liters of the person's breath, the court shall require the person to use an ignition interlock device as provided in AS 12.55.102 for a minimum of six months after the person regains the privilege, including any limited privilege, to operate a motor vehicle;

       (2) there was 0.24 percent or more by weight of alcohol in the person's blood or 240 milligrams or more of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood, or when there was 0.24 grams or more of alcohol per 210 liters of the person's breath, the court shall require the person to use an ignition interlock device as provided in AS 12.55.102 for a minimum of one year after the person regains the privilege, including any limited privilege, to operate a motor vehicle.

       (s) In a prosecution under (a) of this section, a person may introduce evidence on the amount of alcohol consumed before or after operating or driving the motor vehicle, aircraft, or watercraft to rebut or explain the results of a chemical test, but the consumption of alcohol before operating or driving may not be used as a defense that the chemical test did not measure the blood alcohol at the time of the operating or driving. Consumption of alcohol after operating or driving the motor vehicle, aircraft, or watercraft may be used to raise such a defense.

       (t) In this section,

       (1) "inhalant" has the meaning given to the phrase "hazardous volatile material or substance" in AS 47.37.270 ;

       (2) "operate an aircraft" means to navigate, pilot, or taxi an aircraft in the airspace over this state, or upon the land or water inside this state;

       (3) "operate a watercraft" means to navigate a vessel used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water for recreational or commercial purposes on all waters, fresh or salt, inland or coastal, inside the territorial limits or under the jurisdiction of the state;

       (4) "previously convicted" means having been convicted in this or another jurisdiction within the 15 years preceding the date of the present offense of any of the following offenses; however, convictions for any of these offenses, if arising out of a single transaction and a single arrest, are considered one previous conviction:

       (A) operating a motor vehicle, aircraft, or watercraft in violation of this section or in violation of another law or ordinance with similar elements, except that the other law or ordinance may provide for a lower level of alcohol in the person's blood or breath than imposed under (a)(2) of this section;

       (B) refusal to submit to a chemical test in violation of AS 28.35.032 or in violation of another law or ordinance with similar elements; or

       (C) operating a commercial motor vehicle in violation of AS 28.33.030 or in violation of another law or ordinance with similar elements, except that the other law or ordinance may provide for a lower level of alcohol in the person's blood or breath than imposed under AS 28.33.030 (a)(2).